Global Energy Transition

There are five key drivers of the global energy transition. The first one is national authorities’ attempts to address threats of climate change, in line with the Paris Climate Change agreement ratified by several global energy markets (UNFCCC, 2015). The second driver is a significant rise in domestic energy demand. The third one is the need to address growing levels of energy poverty across the world. The fourth driver for global low carbon transition is an intense understanding that oil and gas resources around the world are not infinite and could be depleted within the next few decades and fifth is the different realities that countries face. Taken into consideration, these five main drivers raise debates concerning its implications in various regions of the world and the need of taking measures to address them. 

Global low carbon energy transition can be conducted in several ways. First, it is production of significant volumes of cleaner, affordable, accessible and secure environmentally preferable products (EPPs), such as natural gas, that could contribute to climate change mitigation and global energy security. Secondly, extractive industries in different regions around the world can provide a significant level of financing and investment that could aid the global decarbonization, as well as the development of renewable and low carbon technologies.

In addition, among strategies addressing the carbon budget problem, various applications of carbon capture and storage (CCS), bio-energy with CCS, nature based solutions and biofuels should be named and cleaner fuel and sustainable development. CCSs all over the world can be used today to prevent emissions of carbon dioxide in the first instance when fossil fuels are used, and also offers the potential for removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Finally, during oil production, the associated natural gas is flared when barriers to the development of gas markets and gas infrastructure prevent it from being used. Furthermore, the programs for reduced flaring could stand against wasting valuable energy resources and contributing to climate change by releasing millions of tons of CO2 to the atmosphere. Prospective implementation of these options is subject to examination as it is individual for each country, given certain political, economic and other factors. 

The overall research work of this book examines the legal challenges to global energy transition to the low carbon order both within a domestic context as well as internationally. It looks at the best practices of addressing such challenges, and to what extent these practices would impact the overall global energy transition. It as well evaluates the comparative opportunities and advantages of certain countries to become reliable suppliers of environmentally preferable products that can advance secure, sustainable, competitive, affordable and low carbon energy and global energy markets. Further consideration is given to legal, social and governance threats to the reliability and competitiveness of extractive industries globally, as well as how international cooperation and strategic partnership in investments, research, technology development and institutional reform can help address gaps thereto and the realities of different countries. To that extent, the book raises and discusses the following legal questions:

(1) What is the best case on how to achieve cleaner fuel and sustainable transition away from carbon intensive fossil fuels across the world?

(2) What is the doable approach between developed and developing countries? 

(3) What are the main challenges and practical solutions to global energy transition?

3.              The Expected Outcome

The expected outcome of this research project will be published as a scholarly paper followed by an edited book by 2022.

Project Team:


Eduardo G Pereira is a professor of natural resources and energy law as a full-time, part-time, associate, adjunct, research fellow and/or visiting scholar in a number of leading academic institutions around the world (including the Siberian Federal University, University of West Indies, University of São Paulo, Strathmore University, Agostinho Neto University, University of Aberdeen and, among others).  He has been active in the oil and gas industry for more than ten years and is an international expert on joint operating agreements. His experience in this area – both academic and practical – is extensive. He has practical experience in over 40 jurisdictions covering America, Europe, Africa and Asia. Prof. Pereira concluded his doctoral thesis on oil and gas joint ventures at the University of Aberdeen. He conducted postdoctoral research at Oxford Institute for Energy Studies (University of Oxford, UK) and another postdoctoral research at the Scandinavian Institute of Maritime Law (University of Oslo, Norway). He is also a managing editor for the African Journal on Energy, Natural Resources and Environmental Law and an associate editor of OGEL. He is also the author and editor of several leading oil and gas textbooks. Further information about his profile and publications can be found at:

Hirdan Katarina de Medeiros Costa is lawyer, consultant and professor. She has been working in energy sector since 2004. Hirdan is bachelor in Law, her undergrad background is Petroleum Law from the University of Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil). At that time, she wrote her monograph on Joint operating agreements in the Brazilian oil upstream sector where she explored international model of contracts in the Brazilian reality after the market opened for foreign investor in 1997. Also, she have been published papers published in Events, Conferences Books and International Journals. Moreover, she has a Master Degree on Energy Issues from the University of Sao Paulo and her thesis focused on the Regulation of Natural Gas. She is PhD on Energy Issues and her thesis focused in Oil Brazilian royalties system. She is Postdoctor in sustainability from School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities at University of Sao Paulo. She holds an MS in Law from the University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA. She was Visiting Researcher at University of Oklahoma College of Law, Norman (2008-2009). Also, she was Visiting Researcher PRH04 / ANP / MCTI / IEE / USP (2013-2016).  Currently, Hirdan is Collaborating Professor at Energy Program, University of Sao Paulo’s Institute of Energy and Environment ( PPGE / IEE / USP ), Coordinator of Projects 21 and 42 of CEPID / SHELL E & P Brazil / FAPESP Energy Policy and Economics Program, Deputy Director of CEPID / SHELL E & P Brazil / FAPESP Energy Policy and Economics Program,  Postdoctoral Fellow from Energy Program at University of Sao Paulo.


Allan Ingelson is a professor in the Faculty of Law and Haskayne School of Business & Executive Director of the Canadian Institute of Resources Law and at the University of Calgary. He holds Bachelor of Science, Juris Doctor and LL.M. degrees and was admitted to the Law Society of Alberta in 1991. Professor Ingelson has published numerous articles in a variety of Canadian and international scholarly energy and environmental law journals. He is the General Editor of the Canada Energy Law Service published by Carswell (Toronto) He has instructed courses and workshops on energy regulation, environmental law in the energy sector, oil and gas law, international petroleum transactions, renewable energy and environmental impact assessment and has made invited presentations at universities in Canada, the United States, Peru, the Republic of Congo, China, India, Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia, Norway and Qatar.  

Damilola S. Olawuyi is an Associate Professor of Law at HBKU College of Law. He is also Chancellor’s Fellow and Director of the Institute for Oil, Gas, Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development (OGEES Institute), Afe Babalola University, Nigeria. A prolific and highly regarded scholar, Professor Olawuyi has practiced and taught law in Europe, North America, Asia, Africa and the Middle East. He has served as a visiting professor at Columbia Law School, New York, China University of Political Science and Law and senior visiting research fellow at the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. In 2019, he was a Herbert Smith Freehills visiting professor at Cambridge University. He was formerly an international energy lawyer at Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP where he served on the firm’s global committee on energy investments in Africa. He has delivered lectures on energy law in over 40 countries. Professor Olawuyi has published close to a hundred articles, book chapters and books on petroleum law, energy and international environmental law. His most recent book publications include The Human Rights-Based Approach to Carbon Finance (Cambridge University Press, 2016) and Extractives Industry Law in Africa (Springer, 2018). He serves on the executive committees and boards of several organizations. He is Vice Chair of the International Law Association; co-chair of the Africa Interest Group of the American Society of International Law (2016-2019); and member of the Academic Advisory Group of the International Bar Association’s Section on Energy, Environment, Natural Resources and Infrastructure Law (SEERIL). He is the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy. Professor Olawuyi holds a doctorate (DPhil) in energy and environmental law from the University of Oxford; a master of laws (LL.M.) from Harvard University; and another LL.M. from the University of Calgary. He has been admitted as Barrister and Solicitor in Alberta, Canada; Ontario, Canada; and Nigeria. He is a regular media commentator on all aspects of natural resources, energy and environmental law. 

Dr Penelope Crossley specialises in the complex legal issues associated with the energy and resources sectors. In particular, her research focuses on the fields of comparative renewable energy and energy storage law, electricity market governance, and the intersection between tort law and the energy and resources sector. Penelope is the Senior Industry Advisor to the Australian Energy Storage Alliance on regulatory and policy issues and is the Chair of the Product Listing Review Panel for the Clean Energy Council. Her PhD on ‘Reconceptualising Renewable Energy Law: A Comparative Study of the National Laws Designed to Accelerate the Deployment of Renewable Energy,’ was awarded in 2015.

Nathaniel Babadije is a lecturer in Renewable Energy: Technology, Economics & Policy at the Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy (CEPMLP), University of Dundee, United Kingdom. Prior to his PhD degree, he had obtained an MSc degree in energy studies (with specialisation in Oil and Gas Economics) from CEPMLP, University of Dundee, UK and a B. Tech. in Agricultural Economics (First Class Honours) from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Nigeria. He has written several peer-reviewed papers that have appeared in reputable journals, and his research areas and specialities are in RE technologies integration for electricity generation in developing countries, and associated issues of system financing, management, market design, support mechanisms and policy issues.